Ten design mistakes and Ten construction mistakes of fireproof glass and doors and Windows
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Ten design mistakes and Ten construction mistakes of fireproof glass and doors and Windows

Views: 2     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-06-21      Origin: Site

Ten design mistakes and Ten construction mistakes of fireproof glass and doors and Windows

The devastating loss caused by annual fire shows that the current fire prevention and extinguishing work is still very serious. Glass has the characteristics of transparency, beauty, lightness, non-combustible and so on. It is widely used in architectural decoration. Glass is incombustible material, but the common glass fire prevention performance is relatively poor, the fire occurs, the common glass is hard to bear the high temperature difference and heat shock of fire, so fire performance of flameproof glass was born, a sustainable and stable development and production of fire-resistant glass, and applied to the building has very important significance. With the implementation of the new Code for Fire Prevention Design of Buildings and General Technical Conditions for Curtain Walls, Doors and Windows of Buildings, fireproof glass, fireproof Windows, fireproof doors and partitions, and fireproof glass curtain walls are more and more known and valued by designers, architects, owners and the public.


Understand fireproof glass correctly


Many people are not familiar with fireproof glass, do not understand, think that ordinary glass is fireproof, fireproof glass is the same, the use is the same, so in use just choose one or choose the cheapest price. In fact, although ordinary glass is non-flammable material, but in the fire is very fragile, often 3min~5min on the bursting and loss of fire performance, fire glass performance is different, different types of different performance; The original film has different performance. Use according to the requirements of the use of appropriate fireproof glass, improper selection, will not reach the due effect.


Fireproof glass in standard fire test conditions, glass component side by fire, can prevent flame and heat penetration or flame in the back of the fire surface in a certain time, this special glass for fireproof glass.


Classification of fireproof glass


At present, China's fireproof glass classification is in accordance with the national standard "building safety glass fireproof glass" (GB157631-2009) standard division. According to the product structure is divided into: composite fireproof glass (FFB) and monolithic fireproof glass (DFB). Composite fireproof glass is made of two layers or more than two layers of glass composite or made of a layer of glass and organic materials composite, and meet the corresponding fire resistance grade requirements of special glass. Monolithic fireproof glass is composed of single layer glass, and meet the requirements of the corresponding fire resistance grade of special glass.


According to the fire resistance is divided into: insulation fireproof glass (A class) and non insulation fireproof glass (C class). Fire insulation fireproof glass (class A) refers to the fire resistance to meet fire integrity, fire insulation requirements of fire retardant glass. Non-insulation fireproof glass (class C) refers to the fireproof glass that only meets the requirements of fire integrity. In addition to class A C fireproof glass, there are class B fireproof glass, which is to meet the fire integrity and reduce the heat radiation intensity of fireproof glass. When the national standard of fireproof glass was revised in 2008, there was no such glass in China, so this category was deleted. Now there is this kind of glass, so the new national standard in the compilation will be increased.


Foreign general fire glass performance and classification: in Europe, according to the performance of fire glass is divided into E, EW, EI, and this classification and name is more recognized around the world: (1) When a fire occurs, when one side of the glass is affected by fire, it can maintain integrity within a certain period of time. For example, E 60 stands for 60 minutes. During this time interval, the glass can block flame, smoke and hot gas, but cannot block thermal radiation (equivalent to class C in GB 157631-2009).

(2) EW Radiation resistance: Also known as partial insulation, it adds the function of preventing penetration of thermal radiation on the basis of grade E glass. When one side of glass is exposed to fire, it is required that the maximum amount of thermal radiation passing through the glass backfire surface (the side away from the flame) shall not exceed 15 kW /m2 (test distance of 1m) within the specified time, for example, EW 60 means 60min thermal radiation protection. (Equivalent to class B in GB 157631-2001).

(3) EI Insulation: On the basis of EW level, heat insulation and thermal insulation protection requirements are added, requiring that the average temperature of glass surface temperature on the backfire surface (the side away from the flame) shall not exceed 140℃ and the maximum temperature shall not exceed 180℃ within the specified time. For example, EI 60 means that the fireproof glass maintains fire integrity and heat insulation for 60 minutes (equivalent to class A in GB 15763.1-2009). According to the fire prevention time: 30min, 60min, 90min, 120min, 180min, etc.


Classification and characteristics of domestic fireproof glass


Throughout the development process of fireproof glass in China, the development of fireproof glass can be divided into the following four generations:


The first generation: sodium silicate drying method, adding alcohol organic modifier and inorganic curing agent in sodium silicate, under the condition of constant temperature and humidity, remove water, and then composite. Disadvantages: glass can not be tempered (only a piece of glass can be tempered), easy to damage in the installation process, easy to appear the size of the tip of the bubble, long-term use of the edge is easy to lose moisture and white, inside the piece of glass slippage and dislocation. The process was first developed by Pilkington and Chengdu Fire Research institute.


Second generation: acrylamide fireproof glass, developed in the 1990s by tianjin Fire Research Institute, is in two or more pieces of glass in the middle perfusion with colorless transparent acrylamide as the carrier of fireproof glue, now most of the domestic composite fireproof glass is this process production, mainly used for indoor fire doors, fire Windows.


Third generation: single piece of fireproof glass, high strength single piece of fireproof glass, cesium potassium fireproof glass, high borosilicate fireproof glass (and microcrystalline glass, high aluminum glass, now few manufacturers)

(1) High strength monolithic fireproof glass, cesium potassium fireproof glass is the Chinese characteristics of fireproof glass promoted and applied in China after 2000. It mainly uses physical and chemical methods to produce strong (limit) surface compressive stress on the surface of high-quality glass so as to improve the fireproof performance of glass in the event of fire. This kind of glass in use should try not to scratch, so as not to damage the glass surface stress.

(2) high borosilicate fireproof glass: Because of the high borosilicate glass has a very low expansion coefficient and high softening temperature and become excellent monolithic cesiumic potassium flameproof glass, if processing good fireproof time can be more than 1 h, even at 2 h, 3 h, its stability is better than single chip, monolithic cesiumic potassium flameproof glass is mainly used abroad, produced by Germany short company, in the domestic now have this kind of high borosilicate fire-resistant glass, Such as: Fengyang Kaisheng, Qinhuangdao Honghua and other manufacturers, this fireproof glass fireproof tempering equipment requirements are higher, the general tempering furnace can not meet the requirements。


Fourth generation: the use of special silicon dioxide strong film forming with cast-in-place method of fireproof glass production, the international mainly by The German Vetrotech company development and production, has been used for nearly thirty years, in recent years has begun to develop and introduce this technology, crystal silicon and other silicon composite fireproof glass are produced by this method. The advantage is that the main use of inorganic, fire performance and appearance quality is very stable, with excellent aging resistance, the international manufacturers of this kind of glass are generally guaranteed for 5 years, users generally use for 10 to 20 years without problems, both inside and outside the glass can be tempered, not easy to damage in the process of use, Can be used in the curtain wall and other external wall decoration, this is the most high-end fireproof glass. Four generations of fireproof glass has also formed five kinds of commonly used fireproof glass, which is also the fireproof glass circulating in the domestic market now: grouting composite fireproof glass, high strength single piece fireproof glass, high borosilicate fireproof glass, new crystal silicon fireproof glass; Home-made crystal silicon fireproof glass is usually called nano silicon fireproof glass.、


Four kinds of fireproof glass each have their own characteristics, each has its own advantages, designers, architects, owners can according to the actual situation of the building combined with different parts of the project, choose one to four.



New type of crystal silicon fireproof glass


In order to meet the needs of the high-end market, we need a sustainable, stable, green and high-quality fireproof glass. New crystal silicon fireproof glass is such a product. Its raw materials and technology are all from Germany, synchronized with European technology.


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The structure of new crystal silicon fireproof glass is filled with high-quality new crystal silicon fireproof glue in the middle of two or multiple layers of glass. The number of glass layers used is different, and the thickness of fireproof glue is different, and the fire performance and effect are different.

The technical parameters of several commonly used new crystal silicon fireproof glass are listed (see Table 1).

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Its heat stability is excellent, we better than the national standard 300 times the requirements to determine its thermal stability. Gb heat resistance measurement is the fireproof glass constant temperature at 50℃ +2 ℃ environment, placed vertically for 6h, observe the appearance of glass, changes to determine whether qualified, and crystal silicon fireproof glass is in 50℃ (+2/-0) ℃ constant temperature environment, placed 2000h, obviously better than the national standard of more than 300 times, It is a kind of sustainable and stable green environmental protection of high quality heat insulation or partial heat insulation fire glass.

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